7 Buildings Made From Unusual Materials

In the world of architecture and construction, innovation knows no bounds. From towering skyscrapers to humble dwellings, the built environment constantly evolves to meet the changing needs and aspirations of humanity. While concrete, steel, and glass have long been staples in the construction industry, architects and builders have increasingly turned to unconventional and unexpected materials to create structures that challenge conventional norms and captivate the imagination. In this exploration of the extraordinary, we delve into a fascinating realm where buildings are not just functional spaces but artistic expressions, where traditional boundaries are pushed, and where the very essence of what constitutes a building is redefined. Join us on a journey through a realm where structures are crafted from the most unusual materials, each a testament to human ingenuity and the boundless possibilities of architectural design. Welcome to the world of buildings made from unusual materials.

Table of Contents

1. Casa Terracota – Colombia: Earth’s Timeless Elegance in Clay

Casa Terracota

Located within the enchanting Colombian town of Villa de Leyva, a remarkable architectural gem stands as a tribute to the enduring beauty of natural materials and the boundless creativity of the human spirit. Known as “Casa Terracota,” this extraordinary structure is a true masterpiece of earthen architecture, showcasing the remarkable possibilities that clay offers in the world of construction. Casa Terracota, often referred to as the “Clay House,” is the brainchild of Colombian architect Octavio Mendoza Morales. Inspired by his deep reverence for the land and a desire to create a harmonious living space with nature, Morales embarked on a journey that would ultimately result in the construction of this unique dwelling. What sets Casa Terracota apart is its construction material: raw clay, or terracotta, extracted from the nearby hills and fields.

Upon approaching Casa Terracota, visitors are greeted by an otherworldly sight. The entire structure, from its walls and roof to its furnishings and décor, is crafted entirely from clay. This humble material is transformed into a work of art, exhibiting intricate designs, patterns, and sculpted details that showcase the skill and vision of Morales and his team of artisans. The Casa Terracota experience is an immersive one. Visitors are invited to explore the interior, where they will discover a harmonious blend of creativity and functionality. The house features a variety of rooms and spaces, including bedrooms, a kitchen, and even a bathroom, all adorned with stunning clay sculptures and handcrafted details. The curved, organic shapes of the structure create a sense of living within the very earth itself.

Beyond its aesthetic appeal, Casa Terracota serves as an embodiment of sustainable architecture. Clay is a natural, renewable resource, and its use in construction offers excellent thermal properties, keeping the interior cool in the scorching Colombian heat. Morales’ vision for this earthbound dwelling extends to his commitment to showcasing the potential of eco-friendly building techniques. As visitors explore Casa Terracota, they gain a deeper appreciation for the connection between architecture and the environment. The house seamlessly integrates with its natural surroundings, inviting guests to contemplate the beauty and versatility of the earth as a building material.

2. The Big Basket – USA: A Monumental Tribute to American Heritage

big basket

Located in the heart of Newark, Ohio, USA,  the Big Basket stands as a whimsical and iconic architectural treasure, capturing the essence of Americana in a truly colossal form. As a symbol of the nation’s rich history and entrepreneurial spirit, this larger-than-life basket is a unique and endearing testament to the power of imagination in architecture. The Big Basket, also known as the Longaberger Building, is the brainchild of the Longaberger Company, a renowned American manufacturer of handcrafted maple wood baskets and home products. The idea for this extraordinary structure was conceived in the early 1990s when company founder Dave Longaberger decided to celebrate the craft that had made his company famous by constructing its headquarters in the shape of a giant basket.

The primary material used in the construction of this unique building is locally sourced Ohio wood. The wood used for the construction of this 180,000-square-foot headquarters was harvested from the Longaberger Golf Club in Hanover, Ohio. This deliberate choice of locally sourced wood aligns with sustainability principles and supports the regional economy. Furthermore, the cherry wood used in the building was processed in Longaberger’s own mill, emphasizing the company’s commitment to quality control and utilizing resources efficiently. By using wood from their own golf club and processing it in-house, Longaberger not only ensured that the material met their standards but also maintained a connection to the local community.

What makes the Big Basket truly captivating is its faithful replication of a classic Longaberger Market Basket. Rising to a height of seven stories, it is constructed with a steel frame and exterior panels made to resemble the signature woven texture of Longaberger baskets. Even the basket’s handle is faithfully recreated, doubling as a unique atrium for the building’s interior. The interior of the Big Basket is a marvel in itself, featuring office spaces, meeting rooms, and a charming courtyard where employees and visitors can enjoy the beauty of natural light streaming through the basket’s “weave.” The attention to detail in the design is a testament to the Longaberger Company’s commitment to celebrating its craft and heritage.

The Big Basket has become an iconic landmark in Newark and a symbol of American entrepreneurship and creativity. Its presence on the Ohio landscape has drawn countless tourists and admirers from far and wide, each seeking to marvel at this one-of-a-kind architectural feat. Beyond its striking appearance, the Big Basket embodies the spirit of the Longaberger Company and its dedication to craftsmanship and quality. The basket-shaped headquarters serves as a reminder of the values that have propelled this American company to success for generations.

3. Bottle Houses – Prince Edward Island, Canada: A Kaleidoscope of Glass and Imagination

bottle houses

Hidden away on the picturesque shores of Prince Edward Island, Canada, lies an enchanting and eco-friendly marvel that seamlessly blends recycling, artistry, and architecture. Known as the “Bottle Houses,” these whimsical structures stand as a testament to one man’s vision and a brilliant showcase of how discarded glass bottles can find new life as integral building materials. The story of the Bottle Houses begins with the late Edouard T. Arsenault, a resourceful and environmentally-conscious individual who recognized the potential of used glass bottles. In the mid-20th century, Edouard embarked on an extraordinary journey to collect and transform thousands of discarded bottles into three distinct structures: a chapel, a tavern, and a house. These structures, made primarily from glass bottles and mortar, are a testament to his dedication and creative genius.

Visiting the Bottle Houses is akin to stepping into a kaleidoscope of colors and light. As sunlight filters through the myriad of glass bottles embedded in the walls, floors, and ceilings, it creates a mesmerizing play of colors, casting enchanting patterns and hues throughout the interiors. The effect is nothing short of magical, providing visitors with an immersive and surreal experience that seems to transport them to another world. Each of the three buildings showcases a unique architectural style. The Chapel, with its striking stained glass windows, evokes a sense of serenity and spirituality. The Tavern, complete with a functioning bar, exudes a cozy and welcoming atmosphere, inviting visitors to step back in time. The House, with its quaint furnishings and charming details, offers a glimpse into domestic life from a bygone era.

Beyond their aesthetic appeal, the Bottle Houses also serve as a remarkable example of sustainable building practices. By repurposing glass bottles that might otherwise have ended up in landfills, Edouard T. Arsenault’s creation embodies the principles of recycling and environmental responsibility long before they became mainstream concerns. Today, the Bottle Houses stand as a living testament to one man’s passion, vision, and dedication to preserving the environment while creating something truly extraordinary. They offer a unique and captivating experience for tourists and art enthusiasts alike, drawing visitors from around the world who are eager to witness the harmonious marriage of art, architecture, and sustainability.


4. The Ice Hotel, Sweden: Where Frozen Dreams Become Reality

ice hotel


Nestled within the pristine wilderness of northern Sweden, there exists a marvel of architecture and artistry that defies the conventional notion of a hotel. Known simply as the “Ice Hotel,” this extraordinary establishment is a testament to the human desire to create, even in the harshest of environments. Every year, as winter blankets the region with a thick layer of snow and the mercury plummets to frigid depths, the Ice Hotel emerges from the frozen landscape as if by magic. What sets this place apart from any other hotel in the world is its core building material: ice harvested from the nearby Torne River.

The idea behind the Ice Hotel is as audacious as it is awe-inspiring. Each year, a team of skilled architects, designers, and ice sculptors collaborates to create a structure that is, quite literally, a work of art. The hotel’s walls, ceilings, and even many of its furnishings are painstakingly crafted from ice blocks sourced locally. As temperatures drop, the hotel becomes a shimmering, ethereal palace of ice, illuminated by the soft glow of strategically placed LED lights. But the Ice Hotel is not merely an architectural spectacle; it is a fully functioning hotel that welcomes guests from around the world. With a range of ice suites and warm accommodations, it offers visitors the unique opportunity to sleep in a room constructed entirely of ice and snow, snuggled in warm Arctic sleeping bags on ice beds covered with reindeer hides.

As you explore the corridors and chambers of the Ice Hotel, you’ll encounter stunning ice sculptures, intricate carvings, and ephemeral art installations. Every nook and cranny is a canvas for creativity, making each visit a truly immersive and ever-changing experience. Intriguingly, the Ice Hotel’s ephemeral nature adds an extra layer of fascination. As spring approaches and the sun’s warmth begins to thaw the structure, the Ice Hotel gradually returns to the river from whence it came, its materials returning to their liquid state. This annual rebirth symbolizes the cyclical nature of life, art, and the enduring spirit of human innovation.

5. Cardboard Cathedral, New Zealand: A Testament to Resilience and Innovation

cardboard cathedral

Located in the heart of Christchurch, New Zealand, the Cardboard Cathedral is a shining example of human resilience and architectural innovation in the face of adversity. This remarkable structure, born from the ruins of an earthquake-devastated cathedral, demonstrates how unconventional materials can be repurposed to create a symbol of hope and renewal. The story of the Cardboard Cathedral begins with the devastating earthquake that struck Christchurch in 2011, causing widespread destruction, including the collapse of the city’s iconic Christchurch Cathedral. In the aftermath, the community rallied to rebuild, and it was here that Japanese architect Shigeru Ban’s pioneering vision came to life.

Shigeru Ban, renowned for his innovative use of materials, proposed a groundbreaking solution for the city’s spiritual and architectural needs: a cathedral constructed primarily from cardboard tubes. While the concept may seem unconventional, the result is a structure that marries engineering brilliance with a profound sense of purpose. The main building material for the Cardboard Cathedral is a type of cardboard known as “tubular cardboard,” which is made from sturdy, laminated cardboard tubes. These tubes, when assembled with steel and timber, create a building that is not only surprisingly resilient but also sustainable and cost-effective.

The interior of the Cardboard Cathedral is a stunning testament to the potential of humble materials. With its soaring arches and ethereal light filtering through the translucent polycarbonate cladding, the cathedral creates a serene and uplifting space for worship, reflection, and community gatherings. It houses an exquisite stained glass window that pays homage to the original cathedral’s rose window, ensuring continuity with the city’s heritage while embracing modernity. Beyond its architectural beauty, the Cardboard Cathedral serves as a symbol of resilience for the people of Christchurch. It stands as a testament to their determination to rebuild and heal after disaster, showcasing the power of creativity and innovation to transform adversity into an opportunity for growth and renewal.

The Cardboard Cathedral is not just a place of worship; it is a place of inspiration, a beacon of hope, and a remarkable architectural achievement that challenges our preconceptions about building materials and design. It reminds us that in the face of adversity, the human spirit can rise above, creating something beautiful and enduring from the most unexpected of sources.

6. 747 Wing House, USA: Upcycled Elegance Takes Flight

747 Wing House

Nestled amid the rolling hills of California’s picturesque Malibu, the 747 Wing House is a striking testament to the transformative power of architectural ingenuity and sustainability. This extraordinary residence, born from the remains of a retired Boeing 747 jumbo jet, defies conventional notions of home design and offers a glimpse into a world where discarded materials find new life as luxurious living spaces. The story of the 747 Wing House begins with the vision of its creator, David Hertz, an acclaimed architect renowned for his commitment to environmental stewardship and innovative design. When a retired Boeing 747 became available, Hertz saw an opportunity to reimagine the possibilities of aircraft salvage. He embarked on an ambitious journey to transform the massive wings of the jumbo jet into an architectural masterpiece that would blend seamlessly with the natural beauty of its surroundings.

The result is a residence unlike any other, where the 747’s massive wings serve as the building blocks for an elegant and environmentally-conscious home. The wings are not only integral to the structural framework but also serve as distinctive design elements, providing shade, shelter, and an undeniable sense of drama to the living spaces below. The interior of the 747 Wing House is a study in modern luxury, where industrial aesthetics meet the comforts of contemporary living. The expansive open-plan design, adorned with reclaimed materials, offers a harmonious blend of sustainability and sophistication. Large glass windows and doors frame breathtaking views of the Pacific Ocean and the surrounding landscape, creating an immersive experience that connects inhabitants with the natural world.

What sets the 747 Wing House apart is its commitment to sustainable living. Beyond the upcycled aircraft components, the residence incorporates a range of eco-friendly features, including solar panels, rainwater harvesting, and energy-efficient systems, making it a true model of environmental responsibility.


7. The Soundhouse, England: A Sonic Sanctuary for Musical Innovation


Situated within the vibrant academic landscape of the University of Sheffield in England, the Soundhouse emerges as a groundbreaking testament to the fusion of architecture, technology, and the art of sound. This exceptional facility, nestled discreetly within the bustling campus, serves as a hub for musical exploration, experimentation, and innovation. The Soundhouse, conceived and meticulously designed by a team of visionary architects and acousticians, is not your typical music venue. It is a cutting-edge space that redefines the boundaries of what is possible when it comes to acoustic excellence. Designed with the utmost precision, every facet of the Soundhouse has been carefully crafted to deliver an unparalleled auditory experience.

The Soundhouse at the University of Sheffield, England, boasts a distinctive and innovative exterior design that sets it apart from conventional buildings. The primary material used for its construction is rubber, specifically four large rubber sheets measuring 14 meters by 8 meters each, collectively weighing half a ton. These rubber sheets underwent off-site vulcanization to ensure their durability and were then stretched tightly over the building’s structure, much like the skin of a drum, creating a visually striking cladding. To further enhance the aesthetic appeal, 100mm diameter stainless steel studs were meticulously fixed onto the rubber sheets, allowing them to be adjustable and screwed back into reinforcement plates behind the insulation and rubber quilt, ultimately creating a unique quilted effect on the building’s exterior. What makes this construction particularly remarkable is the innovative use of rubberized tanking as an exposed external membrane, a design choice not previously seen in the UK, which presented significant technical challenges to the designers, contractors, and supply chain partners involved.

The heart of the Soundhouse lies in its world-class recording and production studios, where musicians, researchers, and sound engineers come together to push the boundaries of sonic artistry. Equipped with state-of-the-art technology and acoustics that rival the most renowned recording studios worldwide, this space serves as a creative epicenter for students, faculty, and visiting artists. Beyond its recording capabilities, the Soundhouse features a versatile performance space that seamlessly adapts to various musical genres and artistic expressions. Its acoustically optimized design allows for pristine live performances, from classical orchestras to experimental electronic acts. The space accommodates both intimate gatherings and larger audiences, providing an ideal environment for musicians to connect with their listeners on a profound level.


In the realm of architecture, where creativity knows no bounds, buildings made from unusual materials have emerged as captivating testaments to human ingenuity and the boundless possibilities of design. From the ethereal beauty of the Ice Hotel’s frozen landscapes to the enduring elegance of the Casa Terracota’s earthbound charm, from the kaleidoscopic glass walls of the Bottle Houses to the symphonic grace of the Soundhouse’s timber embrace, and from the monumental Big Basket celebrating American heritage to the transformative elegance of the 747 Wing House, each structure tells a unique story of innovation, sustainability, and the harmonious integration of the unconventional into the built environment.

These buildings have challenged traditional norms, redefined the boundaries of architectural possibilities, and invited us to see the world through a different lens. They have showcased the remarkable potential of materials like ice, clay, glass, timber, recycled aircraft components, and even cardboard, pushing the envelope of what can be achieved in architectural design.

But beyond their aesthetic appeal and innovative use of materials, these structures represent something deeper—a testament to the human spirit’s capacity to imagine, create, and adapt. They remind us that architecture is not merely about constructing physical spaces; it is about crafting experiences, fostering connections with the natural world, and leaving a lasting imprint on the cultural and environmental landscapes.